Graduate School of Humanities Department of Philosophy Asian Philosophy Field
Indian Philosophy Speciality
(Credit 2)
Intended Year: 4年生, 大学院
Intended School:
インド古代思想研究 IV
Philosophical and religious doctrines in ancient India (Seminar IV)
Sub Title  Candrakīrti's Critique of Bhāviveka Revisited: -Reading the Sanskrit text of the Prasannapadā on the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 1.1
人文科学研究院 訪問研究員 ハム ヒョンソク
Numbering Code:
Course Code:
2018 FallTerm
weekly Wed3
Ito 印哲研 Classroom
E科目 (English, サンスクリット)
Course Overview The Madhyamaka school is one of the major Buddhist philosophical schools of Indian Buddhism. Modern scholarship has paid due attention to this tradition, especially to the school's celebrated elaborations on the notion of "emptiness" (śūnyatā), based on the root text, the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna (150-250 CE). As this text was extracted from the solely extant commentary in Sanskrit, Candrakīrti (fl. 7th century CE)'s Prasannapadā, textual studies on Madhyamaka developed around Candrakīrti's work. Despite the fact that the Prasannapadā is the commentary on all twenty-seven chapters of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, modern scholarship showed a particular interest in Candrakīrti's commentary on the first verse which covers about one seventh of the whole. This rather lengthy section devoted to one verse contains Candrakīrti's critiques of Bhāviveka and Dignāga. For its historical importance of illuminating the relationships between important thinkers in the history of Buddhism, it has been translated for several times into various modern languages. However, although philosophical discussions (and new translations) inspired by the contents of this section have continued since de la Vallée Poussin's first edition in 1913, philological and historical research has not made significant progress. Most recently, Anne MacDonald published a new edition and translation of the first chapter of Prasannapadā and it gave a stimulating impetus to Madhyamaka studies. Her work, by uncovering historical information embedded in every line of the text with rigorous annotations, incorporates a hundred years of scholarship and shows a promising direction to which future textual studies on Indian philosophy can follow. In this course, we read Candrakīrti's critique of Bhāviveka, the first half of his commentary on Nāgārjuna's first verse. Comparing Anne MacDonald's work with older edition and translations, we will review what has been done so far and consider what can be done in the future in the field of Madhyamaka philosophy.
Keywords : Sanskrit, Indian Buddhism, Madhyamaka, Candrakīrti, Bhāviveka
Prerequisites : n/a
Required Ability : At least a year of Sanskrit education
Course Plan Textbooks : The Dialectical Method of Nāgārjuna, by Kamaleswar Bhattacharya, Motilal Banarsidass, 1986.
In Clear Words, by Anne MacDonald, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2015.
Reference Books : Will be announced in the class.
Course Handouts : n/a

Tentative Weekly Schedules Lecture Exercise, Field trip etc. Comments, suggestions for the course preparation, review, etc.
1 Introduction to Madhyamaka Philosophy
Mark Siderits, "Madhyamaka: The Doctrine of Emptiness," in Buddhism as Philosophy, Ashgate Publishing, 2007.
David Ruegg, The Literature of Madhyamaka School of Philosophy, Otto Harrassowitz, 1981, pp. 1-86.
CW1/2In Clear Words: The Prasannapadā, Chapter One (two volumes), ed. and trans. by Anne MacDonald, Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2014.
LVPMūlamadhyamakakārikās (Mādhyamikasūtras) de Nāgārjuna avec la Prasannapadā commentaire de Candrakīrti, Bibliotheca buddhica. IV. ed. by Louis de la Vallée Poussin, St. Pétersbourg: Impr. de l'Académie impériale des sciences, 1913.
TPMPTwo Prolegomena to Madhyamaka Philosophy, trans. by David Seyfort Ruegg, Wien: Universität Wien, 2002.
CBNThe Conception of Buddhist Nirvāṇa, Theodor Stcherbatsky, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1977[1927].
2 Introduction to Madhyamaka Philosophy
Andrew Tuck, Comparative Philosophy and the Philosophy of Scholarship, Oxford University Press, 1990.
3 Introduction to Candrakīrti's Critique of Bhāviveka
Georges Dreyfus and Sara McClintock, "Introduction," in The Svātantrika-Prāsaṅgika Distinction, Wisdom Publications, 2003.
4 Introduction to Candrakīrti's Critique of Bhāviveka
David Ruegg, "The Svātantrika-Prāsaṅgika Distinction in the History of Madhyamaka Thought," Indo-Iranian Journal 49, 2006.
Anne MacDonald, CW1, "General Introduction" and "Manuscript Description."
5 Eight Negations and Dependent Origination
Prasannapadā CW1 115:1-124:4/CW2 7-26; LVP1:1-7:5; CBN 87-91.
Yuichi Kajiyama, "Three Kinds of Affirmation and Two Kinds of Negation in Buddhist Philosophy," Studies in Buddhist Philosophy, Rinsen Book, 2005, pp. 155-170.
George Cardona, "Negations in Pāṇinian Rues," Language 43, 1967, pp. 34-56.
6 Abhidharma Background of Dependent Origination
Prasannapadā CW1 124:5-137:3/CW2 26-48; LVP 7:6-12:8; CBN 91-97.
Changhwan Park, "What are Ācāryas or *Yaugācārābhūmikas Doing in Abhidharmakośabhāṣya 3-28ab?" in The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners, Harvard University Department of South Asian Studies, 2013, pp. 96-133.
Goran Kardas, "From Etymology to Ontology: Vasubandhu and Candrakīrti on Various Interpretations of Pratītyasamutpāda," Asian Philosophy 25, pp. 293-317.
7 Excursion 1: Buddhist Logic
Nyāyapraveśa, Anandshankar Dhruva ed., Gaekwad's Oriental Series 38, 1968, pp. 1-8.
Shoryu Katsura, "How did the Buddhists Prove Something? - The Nature of Buddhist Logic." (
Masashi Tachikawa, "A Sixth-Century Manual of Indian Logic (A Translation of the Nyāyapraveśa)," Journal of Indian Philosophy 1, 1971, pp. 111-145.
8 Excursion 2: Nāgārjuna's Vigrahavyāvartanī on Philosophical Thesis (pratijñā) and the Means of Valid Cognition (pramāṇa)
Vigrahavyāvartanī, vv. 4-6, vv. 29-51.
E.H. Johnston and A. Kunst (eds. & trans.), The Dialectical Method of Nāgārjuna, Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.
Jan Westerhoff, "The No-Thesis View: Making Sense of Verse 29 of Nāgārjuna's Vigrahavyāvartanī," in Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy, 2009, pp. 25-40.
9 Excursion 2: Nāgārjuna's Vigrahavyāvartanī on Philosophical Thesis (pratijñā) and the Means of Valid Cognition (pramāṇa)
Vigrahavyāvartanī, vv. 4-6, vv. 29-51.
E.H. Johnston and A. Kunst (eds. & trans.), The Dialectical Method of Nāgārjuna, Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.
Jan Westerhoff, "The No-Thesis View: Making Sense of Verse 29 of Nāgārjuna's Vigrahavyāvartanī," in Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy, 2009, pp. 25-40.
10 Negation of Origination and the Use of Syllogism in Madhyamaka
Prasannapadā CW1 137:4-147:4/CW2 48-64; LVP 12:8-16:10; TPMP 17-29; CBN 97-101.
Mattia Salvini, "Dependent Arising, Non-arising, and the Mind: MMK 1 and the Abhidharma," Journal of Indian Philosophy 42, 2014, pp. 471-497.
David Ruegg, "The Uses of the Four Positions of the Catuṣkoṭi and the Problem of the Description of Reality in Mahāyāna Buddhism," Journal of Indian Philosophy 5, 1977, pp. 1-71.
11 Candrakīrti's Defense of Buddhapālita 1
Prasannapadā CW1 147:5-158:4/CW2 65-81; LVP 16:11-21:13; TPMP 29-36; CBN 101-107.
William Ames, "Bhāvaviveka's Own View of His Differences with Buddhapālita," in The Svātantrika-Prāsaṅgika Distinction, pp. 41-66.
Malcolm Eckel, To See the Buddha: A Philosopher's Quest for the Meaning of Emptiness, Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 9-48.
12 Candrakīrti's Defense of Buddhapālita 2
Prasannapadā CW1 158:5-166:5/CW2 81-91; LVP 22:1-25:7; TPMP 36-43; CBN 107-110.
David Ruegg, Three Studies in the History of Indian and Tibetan Madhyamaka Philosophy, Universität Wien, 2000, pp. 105-155.
13 Candrakīrti's Critique of Bhāviveka 1: The Problem of Two Truths
Prasannapadā CW1 167:1-173:2/CW2 91-103; LVP 25:7-28:3; TPMP 43-51; CBN 110-114.
Christian Lindtner, "Atiśa's Introduction to the Two Truths, and its Sources," Journal of Indian Philosophy 9, pp. 161-214.
Jundo Nagashima, "The Distinction between Svātantrika and Prāsaṅgika in Late Madhyamaka: Atiśa and Bhavya as Prāsaṅgikas," Nagoya Studies in Indian Culture and Buddhism: Saṃbhāṣā 24, 2004, pp. 65-98.
14 Candrakīrti's Critique of Bhāviveka 2: The Problem of Direct Perception (pratyakṣa)
Prasannapadā CW1 173:3-181:2/CW2 104-119; LVP 28:4-31:13; TPMP 51-59; CBN 114-119.
Anne MacDonald, "Knowing Nothing: Candrakīrti and Yogic Perception," in Yogic Perception, Meditation and Altered States of Consciousness, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2009, pp. 133-168.
Tom Tillemans, Materials for the Study of Āryadeva, Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti, vol. 1, Universität Wien, 1990, pp. 23-66.
Akira Saito, "Bhāviveka's Theory of Perception," Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 54, 2006, pp. 100-108.
15 Candrakīrti's Critique of Bhāviveka 3: Prasaṅga as the Mode of the Madhyamaka Argumentation
Prasannapadā CW1 181:3-191:3/CW2 119-139; LVP 31:13-36:2; TPMP 59-70; CBN 119-125.
Bimal Matilal, "Is Prasaṅga form of deconstruction?," Journal of Indian Philosophy 20, 1992, pp. 345-362.
Chizuko Yoshimizu, "Reasoning for others in Candrakīrti's Madhymaka Thought," Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 35, 2012, pp. 413-444.

Suggestion for success (Specific) : Do the reading assignments and prepare for the in-class Sanskrit reading session.
Study Consultation (Office Hours) : by appointment
Course Objectives
かなり優れている 優れている 及第である 一層の努力が必要
MP_B1-a [一次資料の読解]
Understand the nature of the conflict in Indian Madhyamaka tradition based on the available materials.
A student would understand the philosophical point of the material and its historical implication. A student would understand the contents and contexts of the material. A student would be able to translate the text not necessarily understanding its contents in depth. A student would have trouble in following the in-class reading.
MP_A-c [研究史と方法論の説明]
Learn how to collect the relevant materials and how to read them comparatively.
DP_A-a [先行研究の理解]
Learn the history of modern readings of the Prasannapadā and discuss how to approach those different understandings of it.
GPA Evaluation
授業を通じて、総じて「かなり優れている」に相当する活動を行った。 授業を通じて、概ね「優れている」を超える活動を行った。 授業を通じて、「及第する」に相当する活動を行った。 授業を通じて、総じて「及第する」には達しないものの、それに近い活動を行った。 授業を通じて、「一層の努力が必要」の活動にとどまった。
Evaluation Method
Grading Percentage, Disqualification etc.
In-class contribution 70
Report 30

Additional Information regarding Evaluation Method :
Others Others : will be announced in the class.

教職 : 教職(社会)(公民)
資格 :

: 2018/10/25 (23:42)